Crisp mtDNA Results
Sarah Pratt England
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)
Mitochondrial DNA tests the mtDNA of females and the female lineage of males for HVR1 (16001 to 16569).The mtDNAPlus tests the mtDNA HVR1 and HVR2 of females and the female lineage of males This test also allows you to identify your ethnic and geographic origins, both recent and far distant, on your direct maternal line. Among other features, this test will be able to indicate your Native-American Ancestry and which of the 5 major groups that settled in the Americas you are most likely to be descended from. Or, it will point to African Ancestry or other ethnic origins, known as the branches related to "Eve's Daughters". Note that since we are testing only your maternal line, the results will not have input from any spouses along the way
Specific mitochondrial haplogroups are typically found in different regions of the world, and this is due to unique population histories. In the process of spreading around the world, many populations—with their special mitochondrial haplogroups—became isolated, and specific haplogroups concentrated in geographic regions. Today, we have identified certain haplogroups that originated in Africa, Europe, Asia, the islands of the Pacific, the Americas, and even particular ethnic groups. Of course, haplogroups that are specific to one region are sometimes found in another, but this is due to recent migration.
J* The mitochondrial haplogroup J contains several sub-lineages. The original haplogroup J originated in the Near East approximately 50,000 years ago. Within Europe, sub-lineages of haplogroup J have distinct and interesting distributions. Haplogroup J* —the root lineage of haplogroup J—is found distributed throughout Europe, but at a relatively low frequency. Haplogroup J* is generally considered one of the prominent lineages that was part of the Neolithic spread of agriculture into Europe from the Near East beginning approximately 10,000 years ago. J haplogroup, HVR1 indicates ancestory in: Germany, Sicily.
T* The mitochondrial haplogroup T is best characterized as a European lineage. With an origin in the Near East greater than 45,000 years ago, the major sub-lineages of haplogroup T entered Europe around the time of the Neolithic 10,000 years ago. Once in Europe, these sub-lineages underwent a dramatic expansion associated with the arrival of agriculture in Europe. Today, we find haplogroup T*—the root haplogroup for haplogroup T—widely distributed in Europe.
U4 The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U4 has its origin in the Upper Palaeolithic, dating to approximately 25,000 years ago. It is widely distributed in Europe, and has been implicated in the expansion of modern humans into Europe occurring before the Last Glacial Maximum. U4 haplogroup, HVR1 indicates ancestory in: Brazil, British Isles, Denmark, England, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Netherlands, Romania, Russia, Scotland, Singapore, Slovenia, Spain, United Kingdom, United States, Wales.
U5 The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U, with its own multiple lineages nested within, is the oldest European-specific haplogroup, and its origin dates to approximately 50,000 years ago. Most likely arising in the Near East, and spreading into Europe in a very early expansion, the presence of haplogroup U5 in Europe pre-dates the expansion of agriculture in Europe. Interestingly, individuals with haplogroup U5 may have been come in contact with Neandertals living in Europe at the time. U5 haplogroup, HVR1 indicates ancestory in: Great Britain, Sweden, Ukraine.
W Haplogroup W is derived from the N superhaplogroup, which dates to approximately 65,000 years ago. The origin of haplogroup W dates to approximately 25,000 years ago, and it is mainly found distributed in west Eurasia (or Europe). It is likely that individuals bearing this lineage participated in the expansion into the bulk of Europe following the Last Glacial Maximum. Future work, including obtaining more samples from central Asia, will further refine the historical distribution of this haplogroup and better determine the role it played in the peopling of Europe. W haplogroup, HVR1 indicates ancestory in : Africa, Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Canada, Croatia, England, Finland, France, Germany,India, Ireland, Italy, Norway, Poland, Russia, Ashkenazi, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States.
K The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup K is found through Europe, and contains multiple closely related lineages indicating a recent population expansion. The origin of haplogroup K dates to approximately 16,000 years ago, and it has been suggested that individuals with this haplogroup took part in the pre-Neolithic expansion following the Last Glacial Maximum.
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